Glossary of the Lymphatics - Page Six
Scalded skin syndrome: Dermal infection caused by staphlococcal bacterium. see also Toxis Epidermal NecrolysisSecondary lymphedema: The form of lymphedema that is caused by the cancer treatment, burns, or injuries that result in damage to the lymphatic system.Self-massage: A form of Manual Lymph Drainage (MLD) that is performed by the patient, or a helper, between lymphedema treatments.
Sentinel node biopsy: A newer procedure performed in order to determine whether breast cancer has spread to auxiliary (underarm) lymph nodes. A blue radioactive tracer and/or blue dye is injected into the area of the breast tumor. The lymphatic vessels carry the dye or radioactive material, to a "sentinel node". This sentinel node is thought to be the first lymph node receiving fluid from the tumor and the one most likely to contain cancer cells if the cancer has spread. Only if the sentinel node contains cancer cells are more lymph nodes removed.
Sentinel node: The first lymph node to which a tumor drains and therefore is the first place to which cancer is likely to spread.
Sepsis: A systemic inflammatory response to an infection.
Septicemia: Invasion of the bloodstream by virulent microorganisms from a focus of infection that is accompanied by chills, fever, and prostration and often by the formation of secondary abscesses in various organs -- called also blood poisoning.
Septic shock: A life-threatening severe form of sepsis that usually results from the presence of gram-negative bacteria and their toxins in the bloodstream. Eventually leads to organ failure and death.
Short-stretch bandage: Specialized bandages, with 30 to 90% stretch, that are used to obtain the correct compression during the treatment of lymphedema; also known as low-stretch bandages.
Shotty lymph nodes: Clusters of small swollen lymph nodes that may occur when the immune system is reacting to an infection. These nodes are so named because they feel like buckshot under the skin.
Sistrunk procedure: Surgery first done in 1918 is an ablative procedure like the Charles procedure, after which the resected areas are covered with skin flaps.
Shunt: An internally placed connector or micro tubing that allows fluid (lymph, blood) to flow between two locations
Skin: The body's front line of defense against pathogens. Compsed of two layers. It consists of an outer ectodermal epidermis that is more or less cornified and penetrated by the openings of sweat and sebaceous glands and an inner mesodermal dermis that is composed largely of connective tissue and is richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves.
Skin contractures: The shrinking of skin tissue due to burns, radiation therapy, or an extended period of inactivity.
Skin tag: A small soft pendulous growth on the skin especially around the eyes or on the neck, armpits, or groin. Also referred to a cutaneous papilloma.
Spleen: Highly vascular ductless abdominal lymphoid organ that resembles a gland in organization but is closely associated with the circulatory system, that plays a role in the final destruction of red blood cells, filtration and storage of blood, and production of lymphocytes.
Stage 1: Lymphedema in which the edema consists of protein-rich fluid and the tissues are soft to the touch. Pressure leaves an indentation that is known as pitting edema.
Stage 2: Lymphedema in which edema and fibrosis of the tissues are present. The tissues are no longer soft to the touch and pressure leaves only a light indentation.
Stage 3: Lymphedema in which there is a major increase in the amount of swelling and the tissues hang in folds. The skin hardens and begins breaking down, fibrosis is more extensive, and the amount of fat tissue increases.
Staphylococcus aureus: A species of bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes. These bacteria cause pus-producing infections, cellulitis, and life-threatening sepsis.
Stemmer's sign: A diagnostic test that involves tenting (pinching) the skin on the upper surface of the toes. In a negative result, which is characteristic of lipedema, it is possible to grasp a thin fold of tissue. In a positive result, which is characteristic of lymphedema, it is only possible to grasp a lump of tissue.
Streptococcus: A genus of spherical or ovoid chiefly nonmotile and parasitic gram-positive bacteria (family Streptococcaceae) that divide only in one plane, occur in pairs or chains, and include important pathogens of humans and domestic animals.
Subclavian vein: A part of a major vein of the upper extremities or forelimbs that passes beneath the clavicle and is continuous with the axillary vein.
Subcutaneous: The subcutaneous tissue is the third of the three layers of skin. The subcutaneous layer contains fat and connective tissue that houses larger blood vessels and nerves. This layer is important is the regulation of temperature of the skin itself and the body. The layer that becomes filled with fluid as a result of lymphedema.
Subcutaneous port: An implanteded device in the subcutaneous region through which blood may be withdrawn and infusions given without repeated needle sticks.
Sulfa Drugs: A class of synthetic substances derived from sulfanilamide or paraaminobenzenesulfonamide. They are used to treat bacterial infections.
Swollen glands: Term used to describe the swelling or enlargement of the lymph nodes in response to infection, illness or inflammation.
Syndrome: Group of signs that occur together and are particiular to a specific disease or condition.
Systemic: Affecting the entire body system. Generally used to refer to infections when bacterium has invaded blood system.
T cell: Lymphocyte that is involved in involved in the control of initiating ur suppresiing the body's immune response to a pathogen, commonly referred to as helper cells
Terminus: The triangular area at the base of the neck, just above the collarbones, where the lymph returns to the circulatory system by flowing into the subclavian veins.
Thompson's Procedure: Modified version of the Charles' Procedure. After debulking, a flap of skin was sewn into the muscle of the limb with expectations that this would draw lymphatic fluids into the muscle.
Thoracic duct: The common trunkof all the lymphatic vessels in the body, except those onthe right side of the head, the neck, the chest, the right upper limb, the right lung, the right side of the heart, and in the diaphragmatic surface of the heart.
Thymus: Lymphoid gland that functions in cell mediated immunity. The site where white blood cells develop - see also Thymus gland.
Tinea pedis: Skin infection caused by a kind of mold called a fungus commonly referred to as Athlete's Feet.Tissue fluid:
Tissue fluid: The fluid in spaces between the tissue cells, constituting about 16% of the weight of the body; closely similar in composition to lymph.
Tissue space: The fluid filled areas that surround the cells of a given tissue; also known as interstitial space.
Tonsils:Either of a pair of prominent masses of lymphoid tissue that lie one on each side of the throat.
Trauma:A wound or injury.
Transudation:Passage of a fluid or solute through a membrane by a hydrostatic or osmotic pressure gradient.
Turner syndrome: A chromosomal condition, which affects only females, has as its most common characteristics short stature and the lack of ovarian development; however TS also has a variety of other associated physical problems that may include lymphedema.
Unasyn:An injectable antibacterial combination consisting of the semisynthetic antibiotic ampicillin sodium and the beta-lactamase inhibitor sulbactam sodium for intravenous and intramuscular administration.
Vector:An insect, such as a mosquito or tick, that is capabile of transmitting a disease
Viscera:Internal organs enclosed within a body cavity such as the abdomen.Vitamin: Organic substance used as a catalyst for the bodies metabloci processes.
Yeast Infection: Fungal infection in women of the vaginal area, in men of the penis. Anyone under long term antibiotic therapy is susceptible.