Developmental Disorders of the Lymphatics

An information blog for disorders of the lymphatics. For all articles, please click on "Archives" - Due to spammers, I will no longer allow comments, sorry.

Saturday, November 05, 2005

Glossary of the Lymphatics - Page Five

Machrophage: A large white blood cell, derived from monocytes (a subclass of Mononuclear Leukocytes ). Properties include phagocytosis and antigen presentation to T-cells . Macrophages contain granules or packets of chemicals and enzymes (such as IL1 ) which serve the purpose of ingesting and destroying microbes, antigens and other foreign substances. Macrophages are not found in the bloodstream but at locations where body organs interface with the environment or the bloodstream. For example, in the lungs, spleen , bone marrow and liver. Similar cells in the blood are the monocytes.

Mastectomy: The removal of the entire breast and the adjacent lymph nodes.

Matrix: A surrounding substance within which something is contained or embedded.

Matrixectomy: The removal of all, or part, of a finger or toenail.

Medial: Toward the middle or midline of the body. The medial surfaces of the legs are the sides where the knees touch.

Meige disease: The form of primary lymphedema in which the symptoms begin at the time of puberty; also known as lymphedema praecox.

Meige Lymphedema: Hereditary lymphedema, known as Type II.Onset usually occurs between second to fifth decade. Affected areas are usually the legs.

Mesenteric node: Any of the lymphatic glands of the mesentery -- called also mesenteric gland, mesenteric lymph node.

MLD: Manual Lymph Drainage A gentle manual form of lymphatic drainage using a massage technique that moves lymph fluid out of an affected area. see also Manual Lymphatic Drainage.

Micocephaly: A rare, neurological disorder in which the circumference of the head is smaller than the average for the age and gender of the infant or child. Associated with hereditary, familial lymphedema.

Microfilariae: Inmature filarial worms that are found in the bloodstream of an infected individual. See Lymphatic Filariasis.

Microphthalmos: Abormal smallness of one or both eyes. Associated with hereditary familial lymphedema.

Milroy's disease: The form of primary lymphedema that is present from birth; also known as congenital lymphedema or Nonne-Milroys disease.

Monocyte: A white blood cell which can ingest dead or damaged cells (through phagocytosis) and provide immunological defences against many infectious organisms. Monocytes migrate into tissues and develop into macrophages.

Mononuclear Leukocytes: Monocytes, leukocytesMucocutaneous lymph node disease: see Kawasaki Disease

Muff: A small compression aid filled with foam chips that is worn over areas of fibrotic tissue to breakdown the hardening of the tissue.

Mycetoma: A condition marked by invasion of the deep subcutaneous tissues with fungi or actinomycetes.

Mycetomatous: A tumorous mass occurring in mycetoma.

Myeloblast: A precursor of leukocytes that normally occurs only in bone marrow.

Myelocyte: An immature leukocyte normally found in bone marrow.

Myofibroblast: A cell, which, due to its contractile properties, is able to aid in the contraction of wounds. It may also form Type III collagen.

Nail beds: The underlying connective tissue that nourishes the finger and toenails.

Neutrophil: The larger and physiologically most numerous class of infection-fighting white blood cells, characteristically even more numerous in generalised bacterial infections.

Non-ambulatory: Unable to walk. Compare with ambulatory

Noone-Milroy's Syndrome: A synonym for Milroy's disease. Hereditary lymphedema Type 1. Often expresses itself from birth. Genereally includes swelling of the legs, with possible genital involvment.

Noonan Syndrome: Hereditary lymphedema similar in manifestation to Turner Syndrome. Symptoms mail include hyperplastic nails, right sided cardiac abnormalities. Differs from Turner's in that affects males and females equally.

Onychomycosis: A fungal infection of a finger or toenail.Papillomatosis: A disorder with numerous papillomas wart growths). For example, laryngeal papillomatosis is the presence of multiple papillomas on the vocal cords. It is most common in young children an is due to the human papilloma virus (HPV). A baby can get HPV by being born through a vaginal canal of a mother with genital warts which are also due to HPV.

Pathogens: Disease producing organisms including bacteria, fungus, parasites, and viruses.

Pathophysiology: Derangement of function seen in disease; alteration in function as distinguished from structural defects.

Penicillin: The world's first antibiotic. Discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. It is produced from the penicillin notatum mold. Broad range in its ability to treat both gram negative and gram postive bacteria.

Pericardial effusion: A collection of fluid or blood in the pericardial space (inside the pericardial sac) around the heart. Some causes include congestive heart failure, cancer and autoimmune disease.

Perivascular: Surrounding a blood or a lymph vessel.

Phlebolymphedema: Term used to describe the edema that is caused by chronic venous insuffiency or varices, varaicophlebitis and complications involving venous pressure flow rates.

Photo-phobia: Pain in the eye resulting from exposure to bright lights. Associated with lymphedema with distichiasis.

Pitting edema: When a swollen area is pressed, the pressure leaves an indentation (pit) that takes time to fill back in.

Plasma: The straw-colored liquid portion of the blood that carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products to and from the cells.

Pleural effusion: An exudation of fluid from the blood or lymph into a pleural cavity 2 : an exudate in a pleural cavity - see also pleural edema.

Plexuses: Group of joined nerves, blood vessels, or lymph vessels.

Polymorphnuclear leukocytes: Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils.Portal of entry: A break in the skin through which pathogens are able to enter the body.

Primary lymphedema: An inherited form of lymphedema that affects both males and females and can develop at any time of life.

Proteoglycans: Glycosaminoglycans bound to protein chains, which form the extracellular matrix of connective tissue. Ptosis: Drooping eyelids. Associated with hereidtary lymphedema.

Quadrant: Division into four. When describing the body, it means the one fourth of the body including the attached limb.

Range of motion: The change in joint position that is produced by muscle movements; also known as ROM. Right drainage area: Lymph drains into the right lymphatic duct from this area which includes right side of the head and neck plus the upper right quadrant of the body.

Right lymphatic duct: The lymphatic duct which is about about 1.25 cm. in length, courses along the medial border of the Scalenus anterior at the root of the neck and ends in the right subclavian vein, at its angle of junction with the right internal jugular vein. Its orifice is guarded by two semilunar valves, which prevent the passage of venous blood into the duct.

Lymphedema People


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