Developmental Disorders of the Lymphatics

An information blog for disorders of the lymphatics. For all articles, please click on "Archives" - Due to spammers, I will no longer allow comments, sorry.

Saturday, November 05, 2005

Glossary of the Lymphatics - Page Three

Karyotype: An organized profile of a person's chromosomes that helps scientists identify chromosal alterations that may result in a genetic disorder such as Turner Syndrome. This information is commonly based on cells obtained from a blood sample.

Kawasaki Disease: Disease of unknown origin, generally affecting infants and children. Symptons include reddish macular rash, conjunctivitis, inflammation of mucous membranes, swollen lymph nodes in the neck, swelling (edema) of the feet and hands.

Keflex: Keflex is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic intended for oral administration. A broad spectrum antibiotice it is effective against a great number of bacteria, it is also one of the most commonly used antibiotic by lymphedema patients for treatment of cellulitis, lymphangitis and other infections.

Keloid: An abnormally large or thick scar.

Klinefelter's Syndrome: A chromosome abnormality that affects only men and causes hypogonadism. In this condition a male normally has 2 XX chromosones has XXY chromosone.

Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber- Syndrome: Unsual type of hereditary lymphedema associated with localized overgrowth of bone and soft tissue of a limb or portion of the trunk. Other indications may be venous malformations, hemangiomas, port-wine stains, other lymph or vascular abnormalities.

Kondolean Procedure: One of the earliest procedures is the Kondolean procedure (1912). It involves resection of subcutaneous lymphedematous tissue as well as creating a fascial window as a means of establishing communication between the superficial and deep lymphatics.

Laminin: A large glycoprotein component of the basement membrane.Laser: Coherent light beam within a narrow range of wavelengths.

Laser: Light Amplicationnby Stimulated Emission of Radiation

Large Granular lymphocyte: White blood cells that kill tumor- and virus-infected cells as part of the body's immune system.

Lateral: Toward the side or away from the middle of the body. The lateral surfaces of the legs are the outer sides away from where the knees touch. Compare with medial.

LDT: Lymph Drainage Therapy Left drainage area: Lymph drains into the thoract duct from this area which includes left side of the head and neck plus the upper left and lower left and right quadrants of the body.

Lesion: A wound, injury or other destructive change in body tissue. Most commonly referred as respects the skin. These may be a wound, sore, rash or boil. Acts as a entry foci for bacterial infections.

Leukocyte: WBC, white blood cell, white blood corpuscle, white cell.

Leukocyte Count: A count of the number of white blood cells per unit volume in venous blood. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.

Leukocytosis: An abnormal increase in the number of circulating white blood cells.

Leukopenia: A condition in which the number of leukocytes circulating in the blood is abnormally low and which is most commonly due to a decreased production of new cells in conjunction with various infectious diseases, as a reaction to various drugs or other chemicals, or in response to irradiation.

Lipid: Fats

Lipophilic: Able to dissolve, be dissolved in, or absorb lipids (fats).

Lipoedema: Edema of subcutaneous fat, causing painful swellings, especially of the legs in women. see Cellulite.

Lipoprotein: Any of a large class of proteins composed of a complex of protein and fatLiposome: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.

Lipoprotein Very Low Denisity (VLDL): A class of lipoproteins that transport triglycerides from the intestine and liver to adipose and muscle tissues. Synthesized by the liver, they contain primarily triglycerides in their lipid cores, with some cholesterol esters. As their triglycerides are cleaved by endothelial lipoprotein lipase and transferred to hepatic tissues, the VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles lose most of their apolipoprotein C and become intermediate-density lipoproteins. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Liposarcoma: A rare cancer of the fat cells.Localized Immuno-deficiency: An area of the body wherein theimmune system may be limited or restricted in its response to a pathogen. Lymphodemous limbs are considered such causing increased susceptibility to infections.

Locus: The specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome.

Long-stretch bandages: Specialized bandages, similar to an Ace bandage, that have 100 to 200% stretch. This type of bandage is used are part of the treatment of CVI in wheelchair bound patients.

Low grade lymphoma: A type of lymphoma that tends to grow and spread slowly, and has few symptoms. Also called indolent lymphoma.

Low impact exercises: Activities, such as walking or swimming, in which one foot always stays on the floor and supports the weight of the body. (Compare with high impact exercises.)

Low-stretch bandage: Specialized bandages, with 30 to 90% stretch, that are used to obtain the correct compression during the treatment of lymphedema; also known as short-stretch bandages.

Lumen: The opening within a blood or lymph vessel from which fluid flows.

Lumpectomy: The removal of the cancerous breast tissue plus a margin of healthy tissue.

Lurtotecan: An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called topoisomerase inhibitors.

Lutetium texaphyrin: A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer using photodynamic therapy. It belongs to the family of drugs called metallotexaphyrins. Also called motexafin lutetium.

LY231514: A drug that is used to treat malignant pleural mesothelioma and advanced non-small cell lung cancer and is being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called enzyme inhibitors. Also called Alimta and pemetrexed disodium.

LY293111: A substance that is being studied as a treatment for cancer. It belongs to the family of drugs called leukotriene B4 receptor antagonists.

LY317615: A substance that is being studied in the treatment of cancer. It belongs to the families of drugs called protein kinase C inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors. Also called enzastaurin.

LY335979: A substance that is being studied for its ability to reverse resistance to chemotherapy. Also called zosuquidar trihydrochloride.

LY353381 hydrochloride: A hormone substance used in the treatment of some types of cancer.

Lymph: The almost colourless fluid that bathes body tissues and is found in the lymphatic vessels that drain the tissues of the fluid that filters across the blood vessel walls from blood. Lymph carries lymphocytes that have entered the lymph nodes from the blood.

Lymph capillary: The beginning of the lymphatic system of vessels.Lymph cell: White cell of the blood. Derived from either T or B lymphocytes.

Lymph circulation: Flow of lymph "fluid" through the lymphatics. Obstruction of this flow results in lymphedema.

Lymph cords: Cord's of dense lymphoid tissue between the sinuses in the medulla of a lymph node.

Lymph corpuscle: A mononuclear type of leukocyte formed in lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissue.Lymph drainage therapy:(LDT) A system of manual lymphatic drainage developed by Dr. Bruno Chikly.

Lymph embolism: Embolism occurring in the lymph node. May be causd by variety of factors, generally toxin build up from infect.

Lymph follicle: Another term for lymph node or nodule.Lymph glands: Another name for lymph nodes.

Lymph heart: A contractile muscular expansion of a lymphatic vessel in some lower vertebrates that serves to drive the lymph toward the veins.

Lymph nodes: Small bean-shaped organs of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body and linked by lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes are garrisons of B, T, and other immune cells. (Read about "The Lymph System").

Lymph node dissection: Surgery to remove some or all of the lymph nodes in an area. A surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are removed and examined to see whether they contain cancer. For a regional lymph node dissection, some of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed; for a radical lymph node dissection, most or all of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed. Also called lymphadenectomy. See also sentinel node biopsy.

Lymph node drainage: The flow of lymph from an area of tissue into a particular lymph node.

Lymph node excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery.

Lymph node of azygos arch: A lymph node of the posterior mediastinal group located adjacent to the arch of the azygos vein. Lymph node of ligamentum arteriosum:A lymph node of the anterior mediastinal group located adjacent to the ligamentum arteriosum.

Lymph node mapping: The use of radioactive substance to identify lymph nodes that contain cancer cells, used in lymphedema to ascertain the exact location of a lymphatic blockage

Lymph node permeability factor: A substance, released by lymphocytes when stimulated or damaged, that increases capillary permeability and the accumulation of mononuclear cells.

Lymph nodes of abdominal regions: The numerous lymph nodes receiving lymph from abdominal organs located in association with the visceral branches of the aorta.

Lymph nodes of elbow: Two groups of nodes, superficial and deep, lying along the basilic vein above the medial epicondyle; they receive afferents from the ulnar side of the forearm and hand, and send efferents to the brachial nodes.

Lymph nodule: Lymphatic follicle, one of the spherical masses of lymphoid cells, frequently having a more lightly staining centre.

Lymph sacs: The earliest lymphatic vessels formed in the embryo.Lymph scrotum: Brawny swelling of the scrotum as a result of chronic lymphatic obstruction.

Lymph sinus: The channels in a lymph node crossed by a reticulum of cells and fibres and bounded by littoral cells; there are subcapsular, trabecular, and medullary sinus's.

Lymph space: A space, in tissue or a vessel, filled with lymph.

Lymph System: When sickness or infection invades the body, the immune system is the first line of defense. A big part of that defense is the lymph system. Lymph is a transparent fluid containing white blood cells, which help fight infection. The main types of white blood cells are lymphocytes. Lymph is carried through the body by lymph vessels that have valves and muscles to help move the fluid. Along the route are lymph nodes that serve as filters for harmful substances. This network of vessels and nodes together is called the lymph system. Occasionally, this system that normally helps keep the body healthy can cause problems. Follow the links below to learn about some of the problems.

Lymph varix: The formation of varices or cysts in the lymph nodes in consequence of obstruction in the efferent lymphatics.

Lymph veins: Larger lymph vessels that are formed when several lymph capillaries join together; also known as lymphatics.

Lymphadectomy: Removal or excision of lymph nodes. Commonly used in cancer biopsy.

Lymphadenitis: The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) says lymphadenitis is an inflammation of the lymph nodes, which dot the network of lymphatic vessels and provide a collecting area for the immune system cells that defend against invaders. Lymphadenitis is not uncommon in children. Causes can include bacterial, viral or other infection. AAFP says people can develop an infection following a cat scratch or bite. Treatment depends on the specific cause of infection and its bacterium.

Lymphedema People


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