Developmental Disorders of the Lymphatics

An information blog for disorders of the lymphatics. For all articles, please click on "Archives" - Due to spammers, I will no longer allow comments, sorry.

Monday, December 24, 2007

Distributional characteristics of lymphatic vessels in normal human nasal mucosa and sinus mucosa.

Distributional characteristics of lymphatic vessels in normal human nasal mucosa and sinus mucosa.

Cell Tissue Res. 2007

Kim TH, Lee SH, Moon JH, Lee HM, Lee SH, Jung HH.
Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, Korea University, 126-1, 5 Ka, Anam-Dong, SungBuk-Ku, Seoul 136-705, South Korea.

An immunohistochemical staining technique with the D2-40 antibody was undertaken to examine the functional and morphological features of lymphatic networks in tissue sections and whole-mount preparations of normal nasal mucosa and ethmoid sinus mucosa. In normal nasal mucosa, most lymphatic vessels were found in the superficial mucosa beneath the epithelial layer. Some of these vessels were dilated, whereas others were compressed and had a slit-like lumen. Whole-mount preparations revealed the extent of lymphatic vessels in normal ethmoid sinus mucosa. A network of lymphatic vessels was mainly found in the subepithelial layer, where lymphatic vessels represented rich networks, possessing antler-like branches and typical blind ends. However, these lymphatic networks were not arranged in the form of lymphangion chains, with each lymphangion consisting of a contractile compartment and valve. Thus, recognition of the distinctive features of the lymphatic network in normal nasal and sinus mucosa might aid investigations of lymphatic involvement in sinonasal diseases, such as rhinitis, sinusitis, and malignancy.

Springer Link


Friday, December 21, 2007

The healing of tibial fracture and response of the local lymphatic system.

The healing of tibial fracture and response of the local lymphatic system.
Szczesny G, Olszewski WL, Gewartowska M, Zaleska M, Górecki A.
Department of Surgical Research and Transplantology, Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

BACKGROUND: Damage of tissues by mechanical injury and inflammation is followed by reaction of the regional lymphoid tissue, lymphatics, and lymph nodes. In our previous lymphoscintigraphic studies, we showed that closed fractures of a lower limb cause reaction of the local lymphoid tissue. There was dilation of lymphatics draining the site of the fracture and enlargement of inguinal lymph nodes. These changes persisted even after clinical healing of the fracture. In the long-lasting nonhealing fractures, the lymphoscintigraphic pictures were different. The draining lymphatics became obliterated, and the lymph nodes disappeared.

METHODS: In this study, we tried to correlate the lymphoscintigraphic images, reflecting the immune events at the fracture site, with the immunohistochemical observations of the biopsy specimens obtained during corrective operations from the healing and nonhealing fracture gaps. Thirty-eight patients with closed fracture of the tibia without traumatic skin changes were studied.

RESULTS: We confirmed that closed tibial fracture evokes response of the regional lymphatic system. Normal fracture healing with immune cell infiltrates and foci of ossification was accompanied by dilated lymphatics and enlarged lymph nodes. Prolonged nonhealing fracture with lack of cellular reaction in the gap proceeded with decreased mass of lymph nodes.

CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for existence of a functional axis between wound of bone and surrounding soft tissue and the local lymphatic (immune) system. We hypothesize that the fast healing is regulated by influx into the wound of lymph node regulatory cells, whereas prolonged healing causes gradual exhaustion of the regional lymph node functional elements, and reciprocally impairment in sending regulatory cells to the fracture gap.

PMID: 18090016 [PubMed - in process]


Saturday, December 15, 2007

Molecular Biology and Pathology of Lymphangiogenesis

Molecular Biology and Pathology of Lymphangiogenesis

Karpanen T, Alitalo K.
Molecular/Cancer Biology Laboratory and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Biomedicum Helsinki and Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Central Hospital, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland


The lymphatic vasculature is essential for the maintenance of tissue fluid balance, immune surveillance, and adsorption fatty acids in the gut. The lymphatic vessels are also crucially involved in the pathogenesis of diseases such as tumor metastasis, lymphedema, and various inflammatory conditions. Attempts to control or treat these diseases have drawn a lot of interest to lymphatic vascular research during the past few years. Recently, several markers specific for lymphatic endothelium and models for lymphatic vascular research have been characterized, enabling great technical progress in lymphatic vascular biology, and many critical regulators of lymphatic vessel growth have been identified. Despite these significant achievements, our understanding of the lymphatic vessel development and pathogenesis is still rather limited. Several key questions remain to be resolved, including the relative contributions of different pathways targeting lymphatic vasculature, the molecular and cellular processes of lymphatic maturation, and the detailed mechanisms of tumor metastasis via the lymphatic system. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Pathology: Mechanisms of Disease Volume 3 is January 24, 2008. Please see article for revised estimates.

PMID: 18039141 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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