Developmental Disorders of the Lymphatics

An information blog for disorders of the lymphatics. For all articles, please click on "Archives" - Due to spammers, I will no longer allow comments, sorry.

Thursday, October 25, 2012

Pleural function and lymphatics.

Pleural function and lymphatics.

Sept 2012


Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy.


The pleural space plays an important role in respiratory function as the negative intrapleural pressure regimen ensures lung expansion and in the mean time maintains the tight mechanical coupling between the lung and the chest wall. The efficiency of the lung-chest wall coupling depends upon pleural liquid volume, which in turn reflects the balance between the filtration of fluid into and its egress out of the cavity. While filtration occurs through a single mechanism passively driving fluid from the interstitium of the parietal pleura into the cavity, several mechanisms may co-operate to remove pleural fluid. Among these, the pleural lymphatic system emerges as the most important one in quantitative terms and the only one able to cope with variable pleural fluid volume and drainage requirements. In this review, we present a detailed account of the actual knowledge on: (a) the complex morphology of the pleural lymphatic system, (b) the mechanism supporting pleural lymph formation and propulsion, (c) the dependence of pleural lymphatic function upon local tissue mechanics and (d) the effect of lymphatic inefficiency in the development of clinically severe pleural and, more in general, respiratory pathologies.

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Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Prox 1, VEGF-C and VEGFR3 expression during cervical neoplasia progression as evidence of an early lymphangiogenic switch.

Prox 1, VEGF-C and VEGFR3 expression during cervical neoplasia progression as evidence of an early lymphangiogenic switch.

Dec 2012


Department of Histology, Angiogenesis Research Center, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timisoara, Romania.


Prox1 is a key regulator of lymphatic endothelial cell commitment during embryonic development. No correlations between Prox1 and VEGF-C/VEGFR3 expression in cervical cancer has been done until now. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the peculiarities of Prox1, VEGF-C and VEGFR3 expression during uterine cervix neoplasia progression. Material and methods. One hundred and four specimens taken from women with macroscopically detectable lesions were classified by histopathology and analyzed by immunohistochemistry for Prox1, VEGFR3 and VEGF-C expression. 

The presence of Prox1 nuclear expression was detected starting from CIN2 and CIN3 lesions to microinvasive carcinoma, in the nuclei of lymphatic and venous endothelial cells and scattered stromal cells. All Prox1 positivelymphatic vessels were positive for VEGFR3. A significant correlation was found between expression of VEGF-C in tumor cells and nuclear density of Prox1 positive lymphatic cells (p=0.044). 

The commitment of Prox1 positive cells through a lymphatic lineage is an early event for cervical neoplastic progression, being present starting with intraepithelial cervical lesions, and is strongly associated with VEGFR3 and VEGF-C expression. These findings suggest an early active lymphangiogenesis during cervical neoplasia progression and explain, in part, the early presence of lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer. By the detection of Prox1 expression in lymphatic and venous endothelial cells, and also in stromal cells, it has been suggested that there are at least three different mechanism of lymph vessel development during cervical neoplasia progression.
Histology and Histopathology

see also:

Lymphedema Gene CCBE1

Lymphedema Gene FLT4

Lymphedema Gene FOXC2

Lymphedema Gene GATA2

Lymphedema Gene GJC2

Lymphedema Gene KIF11

Lymphedema Gene SOX18

Lymphedema Gene VEGFC

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