Complex lymphatic malformations: diagnostic and therapeutical implications
Cir Pediatr. 2007 Apr
Luis AL, López JC, Encinas JL, Suárez O, Burgos L, Diaz M, Soto C, Ros Z.
Hospital Universitario La Paz, Departamento de Cirugía Pediátrica, Madrid. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Complex lymphatic malformations (CLM) consist of disturbances of lymphatic system development, most often with a genetic origin and with mixed vascular system involvement: lymphatic, venous and capillary. They affect a large corporal area or are associated to other syndromes or systemic diseases.
METHODS: We reviewed 21 patients with CLM treated in our hospital during the last 15 years. We used D2-40 monoclonal antibody (by immunohistochemistry) as lymphatic marker to evaluate the level of lymphatic involvement. Furthermore we analysed surgical implications in this group of patients.
RESULTS: Twelve children had only lymphatic involvement and nine mixed lymphatic-capillary or lymphatic-venous one. Two died of: respiratory insufficiency (in the neonatal period) and refractory hypoproteinemia (at 8 years of age). The skin was affected between 10 and 35% of total body surface. Three patients suffered from visceral involvement (lungs and mediastinum) and eighteen musculoskeletal. Severe deformity (20), lymphorhagia (15), repeated lymphangitis and chronic pain (5) were the most common symptoms reported. The immunoreaction intensity with monoclonal antibody D2-40 was related to the severity of the local and systemic involvement as well as to the presence of associated malformations. Fifteen cases underwent sequential surgical treatment, seven were treated with sclerotherapy (OK-432) and four with CO2 laser vaporization. Residual lymphorhagia in patients with total extirpation of the lymphatic malformation stopped after repeated evacuator punctures and healing took place.
CONCLUSIONS: (1) D2-40 monoclonal antibody is a marker of bad prognosis in CLM. (2) The complete excision of the lymphatic malformation lead to healing and the associated lymphorragia should not be considered as a recurrence, which will stop with evacuator punctures in all cases. (3) A multidisciplinary team approach is essential for the proper care of CLM in order to minimize postoperative sequelae and late complications.
PMID: 17650723 [PubMed - in process]